By E. Thomas Strom and Seth C. Rasmussen (Eds.)
content material: Leo H. Baekeland --
A portrait of Leo H. Baekeland --
Materia polymerica : bakelite --
Leo Baekeland's legacy : a hundred years of plastics --
heritage of interpenetrating polymer networks beginning with bakelite-based compositions --
ancient views on phenolic resins --
extreme temperature fragrant polyesters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and their copolyesters --
of their personal phrases : plastic pioneers within the chemical background origin oral background files --
background of polyethylene --
Electrically carrying out plastics : revising the background of conjugated natural polymers --
Polymeric biomaterials : a heritage of use in musculoskeletal regenerative and reconstructive medicine.
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Extra info for 100+ Years of Plastics. Leo Baekeland and Beyond
The Last Hurrah for the Bakelite plant was the conversion of some production facilities to a polymer recycle plant, but even that proved uneconomical given the high built-in cost structure. The plant itself stood empty by 2000, just before the merger with Dow (Figure 12). The production part of the plant was fully razed by 2010, some 80 years after its construction, and only the footprint remains. The Bakelite plant, now surrounded on all sides by dense suburbia, an interstate highway, and harried New Jersey commuter traffic, had outlived its usefulness (Figure 13).
If the resinous phase is then separated and heated at temperatures above 1000C, it transforms into a porous spongy mass. This substance is of little or no commercial importance. Instead, the aqueous phase is drawn off and the reaction is continued at elevated temperature and pressure by the introduction of a chemically inert gas. 25 and is very hard. These outstanding properties are coupled with a very low price! 149) (9). Baekeland on the Structure of Bakelite Careful studies on the best stoichiometry for the production of Bakelite revealed that 7 moles of formaldehyde were needed for every 6 moles of phenol.
Since the linkages between phenyl units are variable, the linear oligomers are incapable of crystallization. Since the actual mixtures obtained in the reaction are so heterogeneous, the resins remain amorphous. The enormous amount of fundamental work carried out by Baekeland and his employees in the period from 1909-1913 led him to become very cautious in his assertions. He summarized all this work as follows: “First: That these bodies are phenolic condensation products of formaldehyde, this condensation process having for result a corresponding enlargement of the so-called carbon nucleus of the molecule.
100+ Years of Plastics. Leo Baekeland and Beyond by E. Thomas Strom and Seth C. Rasmussen (Eds.)