By John Ferling
It was once a competition of titans: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, heroes of the innovative period, as soon as intimate acquaintances, now icy antagonists locked in a fierce conflict for the way forward for the U.S.. The election of 1800 used to be a thunderous conflict of a crusade that climaxed in a impasse within the Electoral university and resulted in a trouble within which the younger republic teetered at the fringe of cave in.
Adams vs. Jefferson is the gripping account of a turning aspect in American heritage, a dramatic fight among events with profoundly diversified visions of the way the country may be ruled. The Federalists, led by way of Adams, have been conservatives who favourite a powerful vital executive. The Republicans, led by way of Jefferson, have been extra egalitarian and believed that the Federalists had betrayed the Revolution of 1776 and have been backsliding towards monarchy. The crusade itself was once a barroom brawl each piece as ruthless as any smooth contest, with mud-slinging, scare strategies, and backstabbing. The low element got here while Alexander Hamilton revealed a devastating assault on Adams, the top of his personal occasion, in "fifty-four pages of unremitting vilification." The stalemate within the Electoral collage dragged on via dozens of ballots. Tensions ran so excessive that the Republicans threatened civil conflict if the Federalists denied Jefferson the presidency. ultimately a mystery deal that modified a unmarried vote gave Jefferson the White apartment. A devastated Adams left Washington earlier than sunrise on Inauguration Day, too embittered even to shake his rival's hand.
With magisterial command, Ferling brings to existence either the outsize personalities and the hotly contested political questions at stake. He indicates not only why this second used to be a milestone in U.S. historical past, yet how strongly the issues--and the passions--of 1800 resonate with our personal time.
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Extra info for Adams Vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (Pivotal Moments in American History)
In the WBA, Siney had seemingly found such a formulation. The WBA focused on the concrete work of relieving the everyday problems of its members, but under his leadership it also shifted toward relieving the problems of the entire industry. The previously organized American Miners’ Association, also led by former Chartists, had focused on raising wages without either the everyday organizational function of running a benevolent society nor the specific strategy of controlling supply. 15 Unfortunately for Siney, just as the coal miners and anthracite operators of Schuylkill were reaching their collective solution to the problem of overproduction, the Reading Railroad was gaining a new manager, a man with larger aspirations than running a quasi-public enterprise in service of the region.
It was like taking a weaver’s loom after he had set web and selvage, or finishing a machinist’s roughed-out part. This responsible, multistep mining process was part of what made miners craftsmen and preserved their ownership of places in the mine. By making the move from shoveling snow to shoveling coal, Shorthill’s men had now earned the label “blackleg” in what was perhaps the literal source of the term’s metaphorical power. Not only did they suffer the pejorative weight of this epithet and the comparison to diseased cattle or potatoes, but as mere loaders of other men’s coal, they must also have been, for miners, suspiciously nonblack above their legs.
For a time, their efforts seemed to many operators in the region to present a nearly reasonable, if galling way to bring order to the industry. The anthracite industry in Eastern Pennsylvania’s Schuylkill County was one of the original centers of commercial coal production in the United States. Unlike bituminous coal, scattered in various deposits across much of the nation, major anthracite coal deposits existed in only a small area of Eastern Pennsylvania. 10 The small producers who initially pioneered the mining industry in Schuylkill developed a close-knit industrial culture.
Adams Vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (Pivotal Moments in American History) by John Ferling